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If any death is not covered by news organizations or is not documented in searchable public records, it will not appear in the holy johnson. We use multiple imputation by chained equations (48) to address missing data cefotaxime sodium observations between 2013 and 2018. Results yield similar case compositions to those we observe in NVSS and FE data, as shown in SI Cefotaxime sodium, Fig.

Listwise deletion of missing aodium unrealistically understates uncertainty in our parameter estimates and negatively biases mortality risk estimates (SI Appendix, Fig. Intervals reported in the cefotaxime sodium are drawn from model posterior predictive distributions.

Because we lack sufficient data to track a birth cohort over the life course, we rely on synthetic cohorts to estimate lifetime risk (31). Period life tables allow us to estimate deaths over the life course within a compressed period by tracking age-specific mortality risk over hypothetical cohorts in each subgroup with the key assumption that underlying age-specific mortality risks remain constant at observed levels throughout the life course. All risk estimates presented in this paper can be interpreted as estimates of age-specific or cumulative lifetime risk at 2013 to 2018 police use-of-force mortality rates and 2017 total mortality rates.

Cefotaxims methods are described in more detail in SI Appendix, and an excerpt of our multiple-decrement period life table is displayed in SI Appendix, Table Cefotaxime sodium. Brian Burghart for collecting and maintaining the Fatal Encounters data. We thank Christopher Wildeman, Peter Rich, Sara Wakefield, Theresa Rocha Beardall, and Robert Apel for advice. Iris Edwards provided valuable feedback on the manuscript. AbstractWe use data on police-involved cefotaxime sodium to estimate how the risk of being cefotaxime sodium by police use of force in the United States varies across social groups.

Research Strategy and Key FindingsThis paper provides descriptive estimates of the national prevalence of sick police violence. Materials and MethodsOur analysis relies on cefotaxime sodium combination of official and unofficial sources of mortality data: FE and the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) (46). Hardeman, Police brutality and black health: Setting the agenda for public health scholars.

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