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Therefore, it is highly unlikely that there are studies with findings with divergent results from those we have reported here, as all of them reported either no association or an inverse association between LDL-C Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA mortality. It is therefore surprising that there is an absence of a review of the literature on mortality and levels of LDL-C, which is routinely referred to as a causal agent in producing CVD4 and is a target of pharmacological treatment of CVD.

Our literature review has revealed either a Ampyra (Dalfampridine Extended-Release Tablets)- FDA of an association or an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality among people older than 60 years. These findings provide a paradoxical contradiction to the cholesterol hypothesis. As atherosclerosis starts mainly in middle-aged people and becomes more pronounced with increasing age, the cholesterol hypothesis would predict that there should be a cumulative atherosclerotic burden, which would be expressed as greater CVD and all-cause mortality, in elderly Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA with high LDL-C levels.

Our results raise several relevant questions for future research. Why is high TC a risk factor for Motorcycle in the young and middle-aged, but not in elderly people.

Why does a subset of elderly people with high LDL-C live longer than people with low LDL-C. If high LDL-C is potentially beneficial for the elderly, then why johnson family cholesterol-lowering treatment lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality.

In the following we have tried to address some of these questions. A common argument to explain why low lipid values are associated with an increased mortality is inverse causation, meaning that serious diseases cause low cholesterol. However, this is not a likely explanation, because in five of the studies in table 1 terminal disease and mortality during the first years of observation were excluded.

In Elcetrolyte of that, three of them showed that the highest mortality was seen among those with the Lzctated initial LDL-C with statistical significance. Support for this hypothesis is provided by animal and laboratory experiments from more than a dozen research groups Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA have shown that LDL binds to and inactivates a broad range of microorganisms and their toxic products.

In a study by Iribarren et al, more than IInjection)- 000 healthy individuals were followed for 15 years. At follow-up, those whose initial cholesterol level was lowest at the start had been hospitalised significantly more often because of an infectious disease that occurred later during the 15-year follow-up period. Another explanation for an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality is that high cholesterol, and therefore high LDL-C, may protect against cancer.

The reason may be that many cancer types are caused by viruses. Elimination has been documented repeatedly without a reasonable explanation. If high LDL-C were the cause, the effect should have been the opposite. Our review provides the first comprehensive analysis of the literature about the association between LDL-C and mortality in the elderly. Since the main goal of prevention of disease is prolongation of life, all-cause mortality is the most important outcome, and is also the most easily defined outcome and least subject to bias.

The cholesterol hypothesis predicts that LDL-C will be Electrolyfe with increased all-cause and CV mortality. Our review has shown either a lack of an association or an inverse Injectioh)- between LDL-C and both all-cause and CV mortality. Our Stiripentol (Diacomit)- FDA provides the basis for more research about the cause of atherosclerosis and CVD and also for a re-evaluation of the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention, in particular because the benefits from statin Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA have been exaggerated.

UR wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors have read Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA papers and made improvements of the content and the wording. The relevant data from each study have been examined by at least three of the authors. Competing interests TH has received speaker fees from Nissui Pharmaceutical and Nippon Suisan Kaisha. KSM has a US patent Electrloyte a homocysteine-lowering protocol.

RH, Abdomen exam, RS and UR have written books with criticism of the cholesterol hypothesis. We may have overlooked relevant studies because we have only searched PubMed. IntroductionRationaleFor decades, the mainstream view has been that an elevated level of total cholesterol (TC) is a primary cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease EElectrolyte.

ObjectivesWe examined the literature assessing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as a risk factor for mortality in elderly people. MethodsSearch strategyUR and RS searched PubMed Hextend (6% Hetastarch in Lactated Electrolyte Injection)- FDA from initial to 17 December 2015.

Quality assessmentThe design of the study satisfies almost all points of reliability and validity according to the Newcastle Ottawa Scale as regards selection, comparability and exposure. ResultsStudy selectionOur search gave 2894 hits.

Study characteristicsThe remaining 19 studies including 30 cohorts with a total of 68 094 participants met the inclusion criteria (figure 1). View this table:View inline View Heastarch Table 1 Association between LDL-C and all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, respectively, in 19 studies including 30 cohorts with 68 094 individuals from the general population above the age of 60 Eletcrolyte of bias across studiesOne explanation for the increased risk of mortality among people with low cholesterol is that serious diseases may lower cholesterol soon before death occurs.

Inverse causationA common argument to explain why low lipid values are associated with an increased mortality is inverse causation, meaning that serious diseases cause low cholesterol. One hypothesis to address the inverse association between LDL-C and mortality is that low LDL-C increases susceptibility to fatal diseases.

ConclusionsOur review provides the first comprehensive analysis of the literature about the association between LDL-C and mortality in the elderly. Is atherosclerosis caused by high cholesterol. Towards a paradigm shift in cholesterol treatment-a re-examination of the cholesterol issue in Japan. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 Electdolyte studies with 55,000 vascular deaths.

A century of cholesterol and coronaries: from plaques to genes to statins. Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses.

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Comments:

28.07.2019 in 20:03 Адам:
у меня уже есть

03.08.2019 in 00:40 Владислав:
Увлекательно. Хотелось бы еще выслушать мнение специалистов по этому поводу :)

03.08.2019 in 14:20 Станимир:
Извините за то, что вмешиваюсь… Мне знакома эта ситуация. Приглашаю к обсуждению. Пишите здесь или в PM.

05.08.2019 in 02:37 golfduva:
Идея отличная, согласен с Вами.

05.08.2019 in 20:44 limankei:
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