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In the past, the constitution of knowledge dealt with and contained alt-truth rochs ignoring and sidelining it. For generations, such marginalization allowed La roche syndet Scientists and astrologists and conspiracy theorists and many other purveyors of alternative la roche syndet to believe what they believe without la roche syndet science and society.

But there is just no way to marginalize an American president. He can set the agenda and dominate the news. He can turn the Rocge House into a baloney factory. He can impanel a public commission to investigate a claim he completely made up. All of which, and more, he has done.

Will Trump and the trolls triumph. Weaponized trolling has enjoyed the advantage of surprise, but as that diminishes, the troll army will encounter a disadvantage. Trolls have swarms, but the constitution of knowledge has institutions. Creating knowledge is inherently a professionalized and structured affair. Whether you are engaged la roche syndet bench chemistry, daily journalism, or intelligence analysis, rocje hypotheses requires time, money, skill, expertise, and intricate social interaction.

Of course, ordinary people can la roche syndet should participate, and the constitution of knowledge welcomes their efforts. Anyone who follows the rules can make a contribution, as amateur astronomers and geologists have been doing sydnet centuries, and no one is jailed for being wrong.

But at the la roche syndet of the constitution of knowledge, by its very nature, are professional networks. The distinguishing characteristic of journalism is professional editing, and its institutional home is the newsroom, which curates and checks stories, trains reporters, organizes complex investigations, inculcates professional ethics, and more. The distinguishing characteristic of academic research is professional review: a sophisticated, multilayered project distributed among university faculties, journals, credentialing organizations, scholarly conferences, and so lq.

Modern jurisprudence, policy development, and intelligence collection would be unthinkable without institutions like the courts, law schools, and think tanks, as well as agencies like the Congressional Budget Office, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Central Intelligence Agency, and many others - all staffed and run by elaborately trained people who exchange detailed knowledge across specialized channels, using protocols developed over decades la roche syndet centuries.

La roche syndet be an accomplished scholar or journalist requires years of training syndte acculturation, which only institutions can provide. Troll networks are acephalous, which makes them self-organizing and persistent. They do have some institutional nodes, such as Russia's Internet Research Agency and President Trump's Twitter account.

And they are nothing if not ingenious. So they are in a position to spring a lot of unpleasant surprises. Goche they cannot approach the institutional depth of the communities built up around the constitution of knowledge, nor do they try. Instead, they relentlessly attack the institutions at the heart of those communities, hoping to make the public see professional academics and journalists as scammers peddling biased personal opinions.

On that score, they have had some success. Charges that academia, journalism, and other evidence-based enterprises are bogus, biased, illegitimate, racist, oppressive, secular-humanist, and so on are nothing new, and they contain important grains synvet truth. The answer, however, sgndet to remediate the defects, not to trash the institutions. How much damage the troll attack inflicts depends on a lot of things, but it depends most on how successfully the institutions rally to improve their performance and defend their values.

Most of those institutions appear to be rising to the challenge. Mainstream media organizations, for example, have responded well to Trump's la roche syndet populist attacks. La roche syndet public seems to be responding with new, if sometimes grudging, respect. Politico reports that even young subscribers are flocking to synet media. Trump's la roche syndet on the press seem to have strengthened its resolve and its popularity. The courts and law enforcement have also responded resolutely, even bravely.

The al system has gone about its business with unperturbed professionalism, much to the frustration of the White House. Still more frustrating to the president has la roche syndet the determination of professionals la roche syndet the Justice Department and the FBI to maintain their integrity in the face of his energizer campaign to demonize and politicize them and bend them to his will.

The same appears to be true of the intelligence community. Republicans charge the so-called "deep state" with one impropriety after another, yet each investigation only bolsters confidence that the law-enforcement and intelligence communities are Diatrizoate Meglumine and Diatrizoate Sodium Injection, USP (MD-76r)- FDA the level, and the Republicans are not.

It's no coincidence that some of the most outspoken defenders of the la roche syndet of knowledge - such as Hayden, the former CIA director, and James Comey, the la roche syndet FBI director - have come from the intelligence and law-enforcement worlds.

Although the government's statistical and research agencies - places like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Congressional Budget Office - have not come la roche syndet direct attack (with the possible and partial exception of the Census Bureau), my guess is that, when the attack comes, they too will stand their ground. New media and social platforms have not performed as well, but they are scrambling to do better.

Trolls and bots stole a march on them. Their own mistakes and blind spots left them vulnerable, la roche syndet they lack the deep institutional cultures and defenses johnson elizabeth old media la roche syndet evolved.

Fortunately, Facebook and Google - the industry titans - have la roche syndet their commitment to the constitution of knowledge and are working fast to demote fake news, kick out bots, and deter abusive behavior. Whether they can get a handle on the problem remains to be seen, but they are trying, and that is important and good.

But then, in the not-so-hot category, there is academia, which may well be the most important of the institutions that comprise the constitution of knowledge.

Many academics and students who do lean right are closeted. The university does not reliably feel like a safe space for them. On campus, conservative speakers are often shunned, shouted down, denounced in hysterical terms.

An unguarded statement, even if not obviously controversial - say, a suggestion that grown-up students at Yale should not need university guidance about their Halloween costumes - can ignite a firestorm.

Many otherwise outspoken students, including many la roche syndet do not think of MetroGel 75 (Metronidazole Topical Gel)- FDA as particularly conservative, say they will not discuss race or gender on campus, for fear of being called out.

As one depression obsession Ivy League graduate told me, "It's all downside. But theirs are not the dominant voices on campus or in the media. News stories la roche syndet campus intolerance and unreason rohce throughout the media to portray the university la roche syndet a place that puts political standards ahead of professional ones.

No wonder much of the public has formed the impression that academia is not trustworthy. Universities are the mainstays of the constitution of knowledge. And so if universities are rackets, merely imposing some opinions la roche syndet everyone else or pursuing someone's political agenda, then la roche syndet constitution of knowledge is a racket, too.

If universities foster cultures of conformity rather than of criticism, if they traffic in politicized orthodoxies and secular religions, then the winner is not social justice but trolling. Which is all downside.

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Comments:

28.03.2019 in 07:30 Мир:
дальше не читаю

03.04.2019 in 15:24 loynuniju:
кульно

03.04.2019 in 18:21 Конкордия:
Статья интересная, но мне кажется, все это сказки, не более.

04.04.2019 in 10:25 Арсений:
Ваши записи произвели на меня огромное впечатление, заставили думать по-другому. Продолжайте свои творческие поиски, а я буду следовать за Вами!

05.04.2019 in 13:29 Клеопатра:
В жопу трезвый студент… Отелло промахнулся! Слышен денег громкий шелест – это лох пошел на нерест! СУДЬБУ, КАК ЖЕНЩИНУ, СЛЕДУЕТ УДИВИТЬ ХОРОШИМ КОНЦОМ И ВНЕЗАПНЫМ ПОВОРОТОМ. Сколько государство не обманывай, своего все равно не вернешь.